Spring in the Garden- October to do list

Spring in the Garden- October to do list

It’s nearly Labour weekend when most of New Zealand will go out and plant the majority of their seedlings. The chance of a late frost will have passed and the weather will be warming up. For cooler areas down South, waiting a little longer to plant can be a good idea.

Seeds to sow: broccoli, cauliflower, beetroot, carrot, lettuce, spinach.
Seeds to sow after Labour weekend: Beans, cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants, pumpkins, melons, tomatoes, corn

Plant from punnets after Labour weekend: Eggplant, zucchini, capsicum, cucumber, chilli, tomatoes

Potatoes

Potatoes planted in the last two months will be showing their big leafy tops and they’ll need soil or mulch mounded around them. This will keep their long stalks from breaking in the wind and will stop the sun from shining through and turning your potatoes green.

Prepare beds for heavy feeders

Corn and pumpkin are two prime examples of heavy feeders. They need extra compost and manure in their beds to get them to grow big and tasty. You can use this month to prep those beds extra well, before direct sowing the seeds at the end of the month.

Work in things like well-rotted manure or sheep pellets, chopped up, washed seaweed, compost and worm castings. Cover the bed with mulch and let the worms and microbes have a feast until it’s time for planting.

Bees

As the weather is warming up, did you notice your broad beans are finally carrying little beans? We have the bees to thank for that.

We are heading to the months where pollination is vital for our fresh produce. Let’s get those bees in our garden by planting flowers wherever we can! Borage, lavender, poppies, lupins, sunflowers… these are all flowers bees love.

Feed your berries

Homegrown berries are hard to beat.  You can feed your blueberries, boysenberries, raspberries, gooseberries and strawberries with Strawberry Food to ensure a bumper crop. Keep the soil for the berries consistently moist but don’t over water.

Fill your gaps (and your plate)

Direct sow baby carrots, lettuce and radishes anywhere you have gaps. They’ll grow quickly and you can have fresh salads while you wait for your main summer crops to grow.

Slugs and snails

Keep on top of slugs and snails before they demolish your seedlings! You can use bait or a trap, like this beer trap. Fill it with beer and the slugs and snails will climb in and drown.

Fashion a frame

If you’re planting climbing beans, pumpkins, squash and cucumbers this year, a climbing frame may be what you need to save on space.

Photo credit: Pinterest

Pinterest is full of fantastic ideas on what you could use. It can made from stakes and string, an old spring bed base, a clothes horse… the possibilities are endless!

Photo credit: Pinterest

Happy gardening!

Container Gardening- Grow Produce Anywhere

Container Gardening- Grow Produce Anywhere

Having your own little vegetable patch can seem unimaginable if you have no grass to place it on. Container gardening means you can have your own homegrown paradise anywhere you like.

Well, as long as it gets sun. That’s still a must. Luckily you can always move the containers around to the sunniest spots!

Container Gardening

Tui garden products have a great range of soils and fertilisers perfect for container gardening. Today I used a mix of Tui Pot Power, Tui Vegetable mix and their new, handy pack of mini sheep pellets.

Container Gardening

Unless you have a mass amount of containers, you’ll need to consider where you plant your vegetables. You want to plant them in a way to maximise the space.

For this particular deck, there was a trellis at the back. I’ve planted purple climbing beans at the edge of a few of the pots to utilise the trellis, as the beans will climb up it.  Broccoli was planted alongside the beans. Broccoli uses a lot of nitrogen to grow, whilst the beans fix the nitrogen in the soil. When the beans are finished, the old plants can be chopped up and worked back into the soil to return the nitrogen.

Container Gardening

Capsicum and tomatoes were planted alongside basil seedlings. Basil can naturally help deter bugs and it is said to improve the flavour of the tomatoes.

Lettuce, coriander, silverbeet, red onion and strawberries were all planted in the remaining containers. Lettuce seeds were sown alongside the lettuce seedlings to ensure there’s a continuous supply.

Last but not least, I planted some french marigolds to attract those bees for when the tomatoes and capsicums blossom.

Container Gardening

The soil can be topped up once crops have been harvested. Add some more vegetable mix or compost, a handful of sheep pellets and replant something in it straight away.

Do practice crop rotation though, don’t plant the same family of vegetables in the same pot two seasons in a row. Otherwise, there’s an extra risk of plant disease or depleted soil.

Happy gardening!

Fruit Tree Grafting- Step by Step

Fruit Tree Grafting- Step by Step

I went to a fantastic grafting workshop in the weekend.  I love all gardening workshops. Even if you think you know it all, going to a workshop and hearing someone else’s thoughts and opinions can be really helpful. Hands on workshops are also the best way to learn since you try your own hand at it at the same time as you’re being taught. I thought I would give a step by step run down of two grafting techniques and encourage you to go find some sticks to practice on!

Rootstock and Scion Wood

Before I go into detail about graft types, I will quickly explain the two sorts of wood you need.

The rootstock is plant with an already established root system. It’s usually just a stump. The rootstock is what determines things like how big the fruit tree will grow, what conditions it can grow in and the fruit size.

The scion wood is a piece of wood from the tree that you would like to propagate and grow. The scion wood can be grafted onto the rootstock via many different methods. The rootstock and scion wood must be compatible for the graft to take and a good way to know compatibility is to graft within the same genus of fruit. (e.g plums, nectarines and peaches are the ‘Prunus’ genus so are all compatible with each other. An apple is from the ‘Malus’ genus so would not be compatible.)

The scion wood must always be dormant (no burst buds!) It is collected in the winter and should be stored in a fridge, wrapped in wet newspaper, until you use it.

Whip and tongue graft

This is a dependable and solid graft with a bit of careful skill required. When grafting it is essential that the cambium layer of both the rootstock and the scion wood match and grow together. To ensure a good match it is important you cut smoothly and cleanly using a sharp grafting knife like this one.

Grafting Knife

Take your rootstock and make a long slanting cut across an internode (the space between the buds). Either place the rootstock on a chopping board and press down hard with a grafting knife, or hold the rootstock away from you and with one hard stroke, slice, off an angled slice. Try get the longest possible cut and as smooth as possible to create an oval face.

Find scion wood of a similar size in diameter and do the same thing.

They should match as closely as possible when held together.

There’s the whip graft, now for the tongue.

Keep your thumbs nice and close together for better control with the knife. About 1/3 of the way down from your cut, slice down into the face. Do this slowly and carefully as this can be quite tricky and you don’t want to press down too hard and cut yourself!

Do this in both the rootstock and the scion. Those cuts create the ‘tongue’ and this is what will help hold the rootstock and scion together. Carefully match them together.

Now the graft needs to be securely tied with grafting tape. Grafting tape stretches as the tree grows and keeps out water and diseases. This step is just as important as a clean cut! Cut the top of your scion wood off so that it has only 3 buds remaining. Plant your finished rootstock, preferably in the open ground.

Chip budding

This grafting technique is one that can be done all throughout spring and even summer. It involves grafting only a little bud of the scion wood onto rootstock. This means you get a lot more use out of one piece of scion wood.

On your rootstock, in the internode. Make a little cut, about 3 mm deep.  1cm above that, slice down to meet the little slit you previously made.

On your scion wood, you want to do the same thing except on the bud.

Once you have sliced the bud off, keep it sitting on your grafting knife to avoid touching it with your fingers and contaminating it. Carefully place it onto the rootstock, matching the bud with the cut you made before.

When wrapping this graft, wrap the bottom of the bud first and only cover the tip of the bud with one layer of tape. Plant your rootstock, preferably in the open ground.

The above two grafts were prepared on a bare rooted rootstock. This is a lot easier than grafting on a rootstock in the ground as you can move it around when cutting.

Machine Grafts

If cutting with a grafting knife isn’t your thing, these grafting shears do the hard work for you. 

  1. The scion wood and rootstock match easily with these grafting shears that cut the wood in a V , U or Ω cut. You can buy this tool on trademe.

Once you have planted your rootstock, keep it well watered. If your graft is successful, you should be able to see the buds on the scion wood grow and swell within a couple of months.

Happy grafting!

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