Fruit Tree Grafting: Whip and Tongue Grafts and Chip Budding

Fruit Tree Grafting: Whip and Tongue Grafts and Chip Budding

Fruit tree grafting is an economical way to create your own orchard. In winter you can collect cuttings (called scion wood) from your favourite deciduous trees and graft these onto rootstock and create multiple copies of each tree, without having to wait for a new tree to grow from seed or having to buy an established tree from a nursery.

There are a few more reasons why it can be a good idea to graft, other than it being cheaper. Grafting wood onto a specific rootstock means you can better choose the size of the tree you’ll grow as well as the hardiness.

In New Zealand for example, one of the standard rootstocks for apple is mm106. This is a semi-dwarf rootstock that is quite tolerant to moist soils. However, if you were wanting a smaller apple tree, for example, you could pick an m9 rootstock, which is a dwarf variety.

The scion wood and the rootstock need to be the same genus for the graft to take. The genus ‘Prunus’ includes stonefruit such as plums, peaches, nectarines, cherries, and apricots, so these could all be grafted on the same type of rootstock. You can’t graft a plum scion wood onto apple (Malus genus) rootstock. The only exception to this rule is pear, which can also be grafted to a quince rootstock despite quince being a different genus.

For some trees that grow quickly from seed, and grow fruit which is true to type such as a peaches,  nectarines and apricots grafting isn’t particularly worth it. But for pears and apples, it’s a great option. Apples and pears that haven’t been grafted to a rootstock with dwarfing characteristics can grow ridiculously tall and take up to 10 years to fruit, and just because you grew an apple from seed you can’t guarantee what type the fruit will be. A grafted apple can fruit in 3-4 years and grafted pear in 4-6 and you’ll be sure of the fruit you get.

That being said, grafting is good fun too, even if it’s just an experiment. It’s very cool to see the wood fuse together and become a new tree. I thought I would give a step by step run down of two grafting techniques, Whip and Tounge Grafts and Chip Budding, and encourage you to give it a go!

Rootstock and Scionwood

The rootstock is a plant with an already established root system. The rootstock is what determines things like how big the fruit tree will grow, what conditions it can grow in and the fruit size.

Some grafting techniques use an established tree stump to graft their scion wood on. In the two grafting techniques below I’m not using an established stump. I’ll be using young rootstock, like pictured below. You can buy bunches of inexpensive rootstock online, or use your own. For example, I have a lot of self seeded cherry blossom rootstock around my property on which I will graft edible cherries.

The scion wood is a cutting of wood that is from the tree that you would like to propagate and grow. Scionwood must be first-year wood, meaning the wood that grew last summer. The scion wood must be collected in winter and must always be dormant (no burst buds) and aim for pieces of about 2ocm- 30cm long. One very long piece can be cut into several pieces.  Store scion wood in the fridge, wrapped in wet newspaper and plastic, until you use it.

Whip and tongue graft

This is a dependable and solid graft with a bit of careful skill required. When grafting it is essential that the cambium layer of both the rootstock and the scion wood match and grow together. The cambium is a tissue layer of cells, responsible for plant growth. To ensure a good match it is important you cut smoothly and cleanly using a sharp grafting knife like this one.

Grafting Knife

Take your rootstock and make a long slanting cut across an internode (the space between the buds). Either place the rootstock on a chopping board and press down hard with a grafting knife or hold the rootstock away from you and with one hard stroke, slice, off an angled slice. Try to get the longest possible cut and as smooth as possible to create an oval face.

Find scion wood of a similar size in diameter and do the same thing.

They should match as closely as possible when held together.

There’s the whip graft, now for the tongue.

Keep your thumbs nice and close together for better control with the knife. About 1/3 of the way down from your cut, slice down into the face. Do this slowly and carefully as this can be quite tricky and you don’t want to press down too hard and cut yourself!

Do this in both the rootstock and the scion. Those cuts create the ‘tongue’ and this is what will help hold the rootstock and scion together. Carefully match them together.

Now the graft needs to be securely tied with grafting tape. Grafting tape stretches as the tree grows and keeps out water and diseases. This step is just as important as a clean cut! Cut the top of your scion wood off so that it has only 3 buds remaining. Plant your finished rootstock, preferably in the open ground.

Chip budding

This grafting technique is one that can be done all throughout spring and even summer. It involves grafting only a little bud of the scion wood onto rootstock. This means you get a lot more use out of one piece of scion wood.

On your rootstock, in the internode (the space between two buds), make a little cut, about 3 mm deep.  1cm above that, slice down to meet the little slit you previously made.

On your scion wood, you want to do the same thing except on the bud.

Once you have sliced the bud off, keep it sitting on your grafting knife to avoid touching it with your fingers and contaminating it. Carefully place it onto the rootstock, matching the bud with the cut you made before.

When wrapping this graft, wrap the bottom of the bud first and only cover the tip of the bud with one layer of tape. Plant your rootstock, preferably in the open ground.

The above two grafts were prepared on a bare rooted rootstock. This is a lot easier than grafting on a rootstock in the ground as you can move it around when cutting.

Machine Grafts

If cutting with a grafting knife isn’t your thing, there are grafting shears you can purchase online that do the grafting work for you and actually cut the rootstock and scion wood so they fit like a puzzle.

Once you have planted your rootstock, keep it well watered. If your graft is successful, you should be able to see the buds on the scion wood grow and swell within a couple of months.

Happy grafting!

Spring in the Garden-November to do list

Spring in the Garden-November to do list

Sow from seed this month: basil, beans, tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin, melons, corn, eggplant, chilli, capsicum, lettuce, radishes.

Sow from punnets this month: potatoes, kumara, tomatoes, onions, capsicums, eggplants.

Harvest this month: Artichokes, broad beans 

It’s still spring but this November has been so warm already. It was in the newspaper not long ago that we are in for an extra hot summer this year. I think that this month we should practice keeping our plants well doused and happy, in an efficient way so we don’t waste precious water. It’s only going to get drier and hotter which means water restrictions will come into play. If we take some steps now to mulch our gardens well, we can reduce the number of days we need to water yet still keep our plants satisfied.

Mulch

You guys know I’m a huge fan of mulch, and right now it’s particularly important!  Mulch keeps the ground cool and protected. I have my vegetable patches covered in a thick layer of straw and hay. While the sun beats down hard on the top, underneath is cool, dark and damp.

Get that ground covered! Straw, hay, dead leaves, spent plants, grass clippings…

Watering

When the weather is hot and the ground dries out, depending on the type of soil you have, it can be hard for the water to trickle through. Here in Wellington, I have clay ground and once that’s dry, you need a hammer to get through.

If I water my garden for only a few minutes, there’s no way that water will have time seep through the rock-hard clay and get to the plant’s roots. It’s important to water for a long time to soften the ground enough for water to get through. Mulching on top of the clay will help keep it soft.

If you have a sandy soil, water drains very quickly. Mulching on top of this will help retain some of the moisture.

Fertilising your plants

Fertilising is very important right now as your plants are actively growing. Applying liquid fertilisers is a great way to get plants their nutrients quickly.

A tomato liquid fertiliser is high in potassium which promotes fruit growth. This type of fertiliser is also good for eggplants, beans, chillis, capsicum, cucumbers and pumpkins. Basically, a vegetable where you are harvesting the fruit, not the leaves. You can buy a tomato fertiliser or make your own using comfrey leaves. Comfrey tea is also high in potassium.

Corn, potatoes and kumara can be fertilised with a liquid seaweed fertiliser such as Seasol, or make your own. (Check out the link below) 👇

5 Easy D.I.Y liquid fertilisers

Succession planting

Practice succession planting to ensure a long harvest time. Sow carrots, beans, beetroot, radishes, spinach and lettuce every 2-3 weeks so you don’t run out. I also direct sow zucchini seed every 4 weeks, all throughout summer, for an extra large harvest!

When planting from punnets, avoid planting in the middle of the day if it’s a hot day. Soak the seedlings in Seasol first to avoid transplant shock and water them well once they are in.

Pest Protection

Keep an eye out for bugs that plague your plants! The white butterfly is out in full force now, its little caterpillar offspring ready to annihilate your brassicas.

Checking your leaves manually and squishing the teeny yellow eggs and the green caterpillar are one way to combat this pest. Otherwise, use a net to cover your brassicas, sprinkle with Diatomaceous earth or use Kiwicare organic caterpillar bio control.

Aphids can also be a problem, on any of your vegetables or fruit trees. If you catch them quick enough you can squish the few there are with your finger (check the undersides of leaves too). If it’s a big infestation, spray the aphids directly with a mixture of unscented liquid soap and water (1 tablespoon soap to 1 litre of water.)

Grey aphids on a cabbage seedling
Grey aphids on a cabbage seedling

Other pests and diseases to watch for:

Mealybugs, Thrips, whiteflies and mites. The simple soap spray used for the aphids will work on a lot of these pests too. The fatty acids in the soap will dissolve the exoskeletons of the bugs.

Passionvine hoppers. Once adults, these buggers are hard to catch. Control them by vacuuming up their larvae before they have a chance to grow.

Psyllids. Dust the infected plant with diatomaceous earth or spray with neem oil.

Powdery Mildew. A fungal infection that can infect nearly any plant. Spray with a mixture of baking soda, soap and water. ( 1 tablespoon baking soda, 1/2 tsp unscented liquid soap to 3.5 litres of water.)

Blight. Treat early signs of blight with the baking soda spray above, or an organic copper spray. Late-onset blight or sever blight is harder to treat and it is best to remove the plant and dispose of it in the bin or burn it. Don’t compost it as you may spread it to other plants and don’t plant the same kind of plant in the same spot. The soil should then be well cultivated to stop the remaining blight spores overwintering and covered with a thick layer of compost and mulch.

A daily little wander in your garden can be extremely helpful in catching what’s wrong before it gets out of hand. It’s also a nice way to connect with your garden and see the changes happening each day!

❤️

Happy Gardening!

Growing Roses From Cuttings

Growing Roses From Cuttings

I have to say, I did a happy dance the moment I discovered just how EASY it is to propagate roses from cuttings. They are so expensive at garden centres but we buy them anyway because who doesn’t love a rose?

Turns out the price tag isn’t even justified when from one plant you can make a dozen baby plants with ingredients you have at home. Usually, when propagating from cuttings you’ll need some sort of rooting hormone to help stimulate the cutting to grow roots. Most roses however already contain their own rooting hormone called auxin so adding your own isn’t compulsory.

It does speed things up though.

Spring, autumn and winter are great time to propagate roses. In spring there is lots of new growth in full swing. The cuttings you take here are usually softwood, which is young and bendy. These cuttings will root quickly but need to be kept covered as they’re a little more delicate. 

In autumn and early winter you would take hardwood cuttings which is older wood. Giving a little nick on the sides of the cutting to expose the cambium layer can encourage rooting.

You can take any part of the rose as a cutting but a stem, cut just under a leaf bud works best, like pictured below.

Now you can dip this cutting into a rooting hormone if you wish. You can get some great store bought ones, or make your own.

Home Made Rooting Hormones Mixes

  • Honey water. 1 Cup of boiled water with 1 tsp of honey dissolved into it. Let it cool down and dip your cuttings into it. Honey is a great natural root stimulator and is anti-bacterial so your cuttings stay disease free.
  • Cinnamon. A quick dip in some cinnamon powder will stimulate root growth, plus cinnamon is inexpensive and easy to source.
  • Willow water. If you have a willow tree, soaking some leaves in water over-night makes a great rooting solution.

Once your cuttings are ready you can plant them in a pot in a warm sunny space to grow. If you’re doing this in late spring, another option is to plant them straight into their final position as the weather is getting warmer and sunnier.

Keep your cuttings moist. After about 4 weeks they will start forming callouses which will form the roots. You want to leave your cuttings undisturbed while they are doing this but for information sake, I took one out to show you what the callouses look like.

After about 4 months you can replant the cuttings.

So easy!

Once you open the doors to the world of propagating you’ll see the possibilities are endless. Roses make a great starting point though. As long as you have a bit of patience, they’re nearly full proof.

Have you tried this? What other plants have you propagated?

Happy gardening!

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